Rockwell hardness testers are used for trials that calculate indentation rigidity in metal. Most indentation hardness tests are used to determine the measure of deformation that happens when the metallic substance is penetrated with a certain category of indenter. A pair of forces with specific rates and dwell times is applied to the test material during Rockwell hardness tests. The hardness of the substance is determined by the contrast between the indenter’s depth at two specific intervals during the testing process. The hardness value is calculated by implementing a formula that was designed to yield a value that falls within a pre-determined span of numbers that makes up the Rockwell hardness scale.
The procedure that Rockwell hardness testers are used for is the same regardless of the scale of the test metal or the indenter used. The indenter makes contact with the tested substance, and a preliminary force, known as the minor load, is applied to the testing indenter. The force is typically held constant for a set duration or dwell time. After this, additional force is applied at a fixed rate to increase the implemented force to the desired major load. The total force is held for a set period of time and the indent is measured. The amount of force is then returned to the initial level. Once the preliminary force constant has been held for a fixed time period, the depth of the indent is measured again. Following this procedure, the indenter is removed from the test substance. The Rockwell hardness number is calculated by using the measured difference between the two indentation depth measurements.
Many of the older hardness testing machines relied on the operator manually controlling most or all of the tasks during the testing process. This caused a great amount of time and effort to be used to get the same results from one test to another. Due to the potential for human error, it also may have resulted in a large number of mistakes. Most Rockwell hardness testers used today automatically perform the test in its entirety. It is understood that a great deal of accuracy has been preserved because of this switch to better testers.
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